This text is a small description of the names, corporations, interest, and modos operandis o the oil industry that want to invade Europe with the so called unconventional source of oil and gas. 2014/2016 where years of entrance of Tar Sands and Shale Gas in Europe from USA. Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Norway where the first countrys to recive it.
In May 2014 arrive in Bilbao, Bask Country (Euskal Herria) the first oiltanker of Tar Sands to Europe. In March 2016 a LNG Vessel leave form Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania USA to Rafnes, Norway. In April 2016 arrive in Sines Portugal the first LNG Vessel of Shale Gas from USA to Europe. In September of 2016 a LNG Vessel take Shale Gas from the USA to Grangemouth, Scotland.
The European people are resisting fracking in our country’s and that oil companies start to reduce and end their work, from the other side of the Atlantic the American corporation’s star a billionaires business with the Shale gas export to Europe and the World. The American and Canadian oil and petro companies want a market that give them the control of the business with all the environmental, economic and social impacts in their one backyard and other places where it goes to expand their business.
Against this push forward of the oil industry we should support the popular strugglers in USA, Europe and the World. After the words of support send by the Scotland people to the American people that leave in the extraction of shale gas and other kind of unconventional source of energy and the exchange of information, mutual aid and support , we in Portugal want to join our voices to the rest of the world, united ours resistances, experiences, and knowledge… Contact a group and person that you feel empathy and let us build a popular net of resistance against the oil company’s and globalization.
Antonio Costa Silva, president of Partex Oil and Gas (Fundação Gulbenkian) is a strong defender of the shale gas business from the USA to Europe, delivering the American energy model as example to Europe and the world. The biggest lobbist of the oil and gas companies in Portugal and a big defender of the unconventional sources of energy.
In January of 2007 was speaker in a Marshall Fund of American and Germany seminary about the Transatlantic dialog about energy. In May was invited speaker in a seminary about Energetic Security in the Deutsche Bank, in Berlin, organize by the Marshal Fund and Alfred Herrhausen Society in the preparation of the G8 Summit
Publish works like: “ O Petróleo e as Relações Internacionais”, Internacional Relations magazine, nr6; 2005. “Does the End of Oil means the End of Oil Culture?” 2006. “Europa e Segurança Energética” National Defense Institute
The USA with the Obama Plan return to the keynesians theory’s (where the state have more intervention in the energetic decisions. In the today’s world accepting the rules of free market), form that idea they create “deals” like NAFTA, TTIP, CETA and others that absorb South America and some country’s of the World that allow for example that Europe receive also Tar sands from Venezuela. With the pressing to the South American countries to drill for unconventional we can preview what is going to happen. Obama deliver is plan in the G20 summit, in 2008 Washington
Costa Silva also defend the creation of Strategic Gas Reserves . In Portugal, REN ( Rede Energetica Nacional) and GALP will store gas imported form the USA in the Carriço Gas Storage, connected with the construction of pipelines to take the gas to Spain and autonomous areas in the Iberian peninsula.
The unconventional enter in Europe for the first time with Tar Sands from Canada to Bilbao. 600.000 barril of oil to Repsol. In 2015, www.transportenvironment.org. present a map of the European refineries ready to process Tar Sands.
Between 2010 and 2012 some “actions” where made to try to stop the change of the FDQ (Fuel Directive Quality), with the focus on the article 7 (seven) about the carbon emission by fuel, that forbid the refinery and business of unconventional in Europe. The corporation win and today we are receiving Tar Sands and Shale gas from the American Continent.
REN (Redes Energéticas Nacionais); EDP (Eletricidade de Portugal); EUA; Gás de Xisto
The first time North American LNG arrive by boat in Europe was in May 2016 in the REN Atlántico facilities in Sines, Portugal, on board of the LNG Vessel Creoule Spirit, with 170.000 m3 of LNG. The quantity of gas is enough for one week of gas consume in Portugal. The localization and characteristics of Sines Terminal make that infrastructure a privilege door for the Shale gas to Europe.
The Creoule Spirit, ended in April 2016 is first journey. Buot in 2015, the vessel have almost 300 meters and 113.000 tons.
EDP (Eletricidade de Portugal), Corpus Christi Liquefication
In 2014 EDP and the company Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC, subsidiary of Cheniere Energy, inc. sign an agreement for the business of 1bcm ( Billion cubic meter) of natural LNG for year, for a period of 20 years, with the possibility of a extension of 10 years by EDP. EDP aspect de beginning of the business in 2020, waiting for the Chenier project in Texas, USA, mainly the Trem 3 of the Corpus Chirsti Liquefaction Project. This transaction make EDP stronger as the owner of a nice portfolio of natural gas sources, allowing them to continue a strategy of the valorization of the EDP actives, being Natural Gas Electric Central; the client list for gas; or the capacity to search for others opportunities in the natural gas market.
The will be transport in EDP Vessel’s. Charif Souki, CEO da CCL “A EDP is the biggest dealer of electricity and the second dealer of gas in Portugal, is the second biggest client of this project”. Is also a big “player” in the electricity and gas operations in Spain, is the biggest generator of electivity and one of the biggest of gas distribution in the Iberican Peninsula. Is present in 13 countrys.
EDP was created in 1976, after the fusion of 13 companies has been nationalize in 1974.
Portugal was in the beginning of the XX century, a country heavily dependent of the importation of the British Coal “The Black Hulha”. With the end of the delivery during the world wars, the solution was what was to become known as “White Hulha”: The strength of the rivers. In 1944 some important steps to that is today EDP. José Ferreira Dias Junior, sub secretary of State for the Industry and Commerce, elaborate the Law 2002, known as the Law of National Electrification. One of the premises of this strategy was to allow the exploration of rivers by Hydric Centrals, created by the state. Goal? Rase the exploitation of the national resources and diminish the energetic dependence.
With the end of the Coal from Britain during the 2 world wars, the Portuguese feel the price of dependence. During many decades the Coal was the potential fuel for the Central Tejo, where today is the Electricity Museum. The central only lost the place as the biggest electric producer in Lisbon, when the Hydric Central of Castelo de Bode start working, in 1951. The lights in Lisbon start to be fuel by hydroelectricity. In the fifty’s, the company Empresa Termoelectrica Portuguesa is created- responsible for the project or thermic centrals on Coal and Fuel Oil.
In the year 1947 was born the Company: Companhia Nacional de Eletrecidade (CNE), the beginning of REN. Similar to the new hydroelectric companies, this company was also a society of public and private capital. In 1969, the big companys that where been created after the The Law: Lei de Eletreficação Nacional, including CNE, united in the company: Empresa Portuguesa de Eletrecidade, that become the main dominator of electric production and the transport of electricity.
In Lisbon, the biggest private capital of the oil and gas companies (Companhias Reunidas de Gás e Eletrecidade responsible for the first public illumination in the final of XIX century, where belgian.
In 1976, the fusion of 14 companies give origin to EDP (Eletrecidade de Portugal). Until the end of the 1980 some small societies and cooperatives, municipal and private, that one by one where absorbed by the new Group.
Chenier are in Houston and operate the Sabine Pass LNG Terminal and the Creole Trail Pipeline. One of her companies operate the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project. Is also in plan a infrastructure project for liquefaction near the Corpus Christi area. The first exports are point to 2018. The Gas that EDP is buying in Fracking gas from Eagle Ford Shale.
Eagle Ford Shale
Location southeast of Texas, area of Shale Gas and Shale Oil. Since 2008 has been the most drilled formation in the USA. The companies use horizontal drilling and hydraulic and Fracking tactics. The concentration of production on the same area make the pipelines more lucrative.
In 2008 Petrobank demonstrate that Fracking could be use to make the production of gas more lucrative. The technique use was the same that Mitchell Energy use in Bernett Shale, Forth Worth basin.
Corpus Christi Liquefaction
Terminal of LNG (Liquid natural Gas) exportation of Chenier Energy, with regasification of gas installations. Is built to recive 5 trains that transport about 22.5 million tons of LNG by year. The terminal is located in the La Quinta Channel in the northwest of San Patrício County basin in Texas. Are about 1.000 acres and 15 nautic miles of cost controled by Chenier.
The clients that help the project are:
- Pertamina (Indonesia), Total (france) in 2016 also become part of the Business
- Endesa (Spain), in Portugal since 1993
- Iberdrola (Spain) Active in portuguese Damps, Eolic and Natural Gas.
- Gas Natural Fenosa (Spain) active in electricity and gas market in Portugal
- Woodside (Australia)
- EDF (France)
- EDP (Portugal)
Texas produced 27% of the gas market of USA in 2015. Chenier is building a pipeline with 23 miles to connect to others pipelines to become easier to access the gas in Texas and Mexican Golf Coast.
Born in Egipt is a american business man. Funder of Chenier Energy. Was the best paid CEO in the USA in 2013. Born in Cairo, move to Libanon in 1957. Work as bankr in Wall Street. Was executive chief of Chenier until 2015, is the Founder of Tellurian Investements with Martin Houston.
USA, Shale Gas and Scotland
The Firsts American loading of Shale Gas by LNG vessels to Scotland leave the USA in September of 2016, 24 hours after the Labor Party in Scotland promises to forbid fracking if wining the elections.
Ineos, petroquimical funded by Jim Ratcliff, will receive a LNG Vessel full of Ethane in her installations in Grangemouth, Scotland. The 27,000 cubic meters of Ethane will be extract under the soil in Pennsylvania, area of the racking Boom. The exportation is to restore the instable business in the North Sea reserves.
The vessel travel with 8 tanks travel the 3.5000 miles to Grandemouth. The Ethane will be Cracked to be convert to Ethylene, use for make plastic products.
“Shale gas could help stop the decline of British production and today is the first step in that direction” RatCliffe
This is just the beginning of shale gas exportation form the USA, that because of the reserves will be the biggest dealer of the market. Ineos to run the taxes change is head office to Swiss in 2010, short after sign 21 new licenses in North Yorkshire and Midlands, the area is almost the double of Yorkshire Dales National Park.
In 2012 was initiated the business to sell gas form Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, processing and transport by the mariner East Pipeline of 3000 miles crossing Pennsylvania. Tanks for storage and a vessel harbor for Dragon Ships where built. Evergas was the companies that built the Dragon Ships, with a 15 years contract with Ineos.
The first vessel leave the American coast in march 2016 from Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, to Rafnes, Norway. The vessel Ineos Interpid with 180 meters, is one of Dragon Class ships that will transport 800.000 tons of Ethane to Europe (Scotland) and Norway.
“As been a multinational enforce. Take 5 years, I believe that a project like this only could append with Ineos, the companies culture means that we have the freedom to Make things append with the minimal of Bureaucracy. The market feeling that we offer in a positive change to business, to European industry, we fill.” Tom Crotty, Ineos director
“ We combine tested and proven technologies in new changes. No one had experiment to ship Ethane by Vessel in these quantities and in these distances. To do that we had to invent new ways to do it” Steffen Jacobsen, CEO, Evergas
The 4 first vessel are complete, the rest are mark to leave dry docking the beginning of 2017. The vessels have names of the values of Ineos: Vision; Inspiration; Intuition; independence; Innovation; ingenuity; Invention. Also, transport a MNS with 100 meters relating with the benefits of Shale Gas to Europe for the Chemical industry, congress and working people. Create to take Ethane to Norway, mark the beginning of a new era for Ineos and the large European chemical industry.
The ambition been stopped by a moratorium in Scotland about fracking impose by the Scottish parliament, but England aka: United Kingdom have other plans. The Ineos plans become more controversy when was discover that the companies plan to send toxic waste of the operations to the Sea.
The promises hare energetic independence, work places and economic benefits to the local communities near the industry infrastructures.
British chemical engineer, president of Ineos Chemicals Group that founded in 1998 and still owns 2/3, in 2010 was one of the richness man in United Kingdom. Is first work was with the Giant Esso. In 1989 he join the American group Advent international.
Co-Founder of INSPEC, that launched the BP factory in Antwerp , Belgic. In 1998 form Ineos in Hampshire to buy INSPEC and the factory in Antwerp. Using high-yield Debt to business, start to buy unwanted operations by ICI and BP, with the goal to make them lucrative in 5 years. In 2006 Ineos buy the BP Innovene Chemical giving Ineos the control of factories and refineries in Scotland, Italy, Germany, France, Belgic and Canada
Was co-founder of INSPEC, that launch the factory of BP in Antwerp. In 2009 was honor with honorary member by the Chemical engineer institution by is leadership in the creation of Ineos Group. In 2015 open the English head office of the group in Knightsbrige, London.
He founded the charety action “Go Run for FUN”, to encoraje children between 5 and 10 become active creating events focus on celebrity’s.
Most part of the workers spend their lifes in oil and chemical industry. They come to Ineos from: BASF, BP, Degussa, Dow, Enichem, Hoechst, ICI, North Hydro and Solvay. Ineos is a refreshing place to work and make business. We are focus in growing, and “see our clients as kings.”
Is currently in 16 countrys.
In 2009 Ineo sold a participation in CIRES to Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd, world leader of PVC production. CIRES was create in 1960 with the union of Japanese and Portuguese industrial companies, was the industrial union between Portuguese and Japanese in Europe. Being the only PVC producer in Portugal, have a strong place in the Iberian market.
The Ineos products are a contribution to save lives. Our products go true inks and plastics, textile to technology, medicine and mobilphone – the chemicals fabricated by Ineos change almost every aspect of modern life, products like:
- Solvents in the production of insulin and antibiotics
- Chlorine for Water Purification
- Synthetic Oil
- Plastic to store produts (tetrapack, etc)
- Electric cabels/comunications
- Isolation Materials
- Produtcs use in medicine, constrotion and mobils.
Tar Sands, Bilbao, Basque Country
Tar Sands for the first time in Europe
In may 2014 arrive in Bilbao, Basque Country the first shipman of Canadian tar sands to Europe. Are about 600.000 barrels, the oil belong to Repsol, is the 1st big shipman to the European Market. Tar sands are the dirtiest oil until today produce 3 to 5 times more gases emission the “conventional” oil. Is describe as the “biggest carbon bomb on the planet” by the scientist James Hansen. The extraction causes pollution and deforestation, kill the wild life and treats the local communities. Tar sands are explored big scale in Canada. Environmental groups declare that the arrival of the vessel with Tar sands is a violation of actions against climate changes by the UE and appeal that tar sands stay way from Europe.
The report from Natural Resource Defense Council base in the USA shows that the importation of Tar sands could go to 4.000 barrels a day in 2012 to more than 700.000 in 2020 was result of the pipelines planed or in construction in the USA and Canada. These importations to Europe are diminishing and ending the Fuel Quality’s Directive in Europe that pretended reduced the emissions by fuel in 6%.
Repsol was force to delay her operation of shale gas in Cantabria (autonomous area in Spain). The local government stop the project because of the danger to water reservoirs.
From the People to the People. With the people, For the People!
Anti Oil Groups in Portugal